Khulafa’ Ar Rasyidin

1. Saidina Abu Bakar as-Siddiq

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  • Abu Bakr as-Șiddīq (Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafa) (Arabic: عبد الله بن أبي قحافة, Transliteration: ʿAbd Allāh ibn Abī Quḥāfah, c. 573 CE – 23 August 634 CE) also known as Abū Bakr (Arabic: أبو بكر , meaning Father of the Virgin) was a senior companion (Sahabi) and the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632–634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad’s death.[1]As Caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad, since the religious function and authority of prophethood ended with Muhammad’s death according to Islam. He was called Al-Siddiq (The Truthful)[2] and was known by that title among later generations of Muslims.

2. Saidina Umar Ibnu al-Khattab

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  • Umar, also spelled Omar (Arabic: عمر بن الخطاب, Transliteration: `Umar ibn Al-Khattāb, Umar Son of Al-Khattab, born 579 CE – died 6 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs (rulers) in history.[3] He was a sahābi (companion) of the Islamic prophetMuhammad. He succeeded Caliph Abu Bakr (632–634) as the second Caliph of Rashidun Caliphate on 23 August 634. He was an expert Islamicjurist and is best known for his pious and just nature, which earned him the title Al-Faruq (“the one who distinguishes between right and wrong”).[4] He is sometimes referred to as Caliph ‘Umar I by historians of Islam, since a later Umayyad caliph, ‘Umar II, also bore that name.

3. Saidina Uthman b. Affan

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  • Uthman ibn Affan (Arabic: عثمان بن عفان‎, strict transliteration: ʻUthmān ibn ʻAffān) (577 – 20 June 656) was one of the companions of Islamic prophet,Muhammad. He played a major role in early Islamic history as the third of the Sunni Rashidun or Rightly Guided Caliphs. Uthman was born into the Umayyad clan of Mecca, a powerful family of the Quraish tribe. He was a companion of Muhammad who assumed the role of leader (caliph) of the Muslim Empire at the age of 65 following Umar ibn al-Khattab. Under his leadership, the empire expanded into Fars in 650 (present-day Iran), some areas of Khorasan (present-day Afghanistan) in 651 and the conquest of Armenia was begun in the 640s.[2] Some of Uthman’s notable achievements were the economic reforms he introduced, and the compilation of the Qur’an into the unified, authoritative text that is known today.

4. Saidina Ali b. Abu Talib

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  • Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب, Transliteration: ʿAlī ibn Abī ṬālibArabic pronunciation: [ʕæliː ibn ʔæbiː t̪ˤæːlib]; 13th Rajab, 22 or 16 BH – 21stRamaḍān, 40 AH; September 20, 601 or July 17, 607 or 600[6]  – January 27, 661[2]) was the cousin and son-in-law of Islamic prophet Muhammad, ruling over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661.[7] A son of Abu Talib,[7] Ali was also the first male convert to Islam.[8][9] Sunnis consider Ali the fourth and final of the Rashidun (rightly guided Caliphs), while Shias regard Ali as the first Imam and consider him and his descendants the rightful successors to Muhammad, all of which are members of the Ahl al-Bayt, the household of Muhammad. This disagreement split the Ummah (Muslim community) into the Sunni and Shia branches.[1
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